For each of the Big Five personality traits, include in your post an answer to the following prompts: Trait: Openness 1. What is important for managers to understand about this trait? 2. What is one thing that would you need to do to in order to effectively manage an employee with a high level of this trait? 3. What is one thing would you need to do in order to effectively manage an employee with a low level of this trait? Trait: Conscientiousness 1. What is important for managers to understand about this trait? 2. What is one thing that would you need to do to in order to effectively manage an employee with a high level of this trait? 3. What is one thing would you need to do in order to effectively manage an employee with a low level of this trait? Trait: Extroversion 1. What is important for managers to understand about this trait? 2. What is one thing that would you need to do to in order to effectively manage an employee with a high level of this trait? 3. What is one thing would you need to do in order to effectively manage an employee with a low level of this trait? Trait: Agreeableness 1. What is important for managers to understand about this trait? 2. What is one thing that would you need to do to in order to effectively manage an employee with a high level of this trait? 3. What is one thing would you need to do in order to effectively manage an employee with a low level of this trait? Trait: Neuroticism 1. What is important for managers to understand about this trait? 2. What is one thing that would you need to do to in order to effectively manage an employee with a high level of this trait? 3. What is one thing would you need to do in order to effectively manage an employee with a low level of this trait? The Big Five Inventory (BFI) Here are a number of characteristics that may or may not apply to you. For example, do you agree that you are someone who likes to spend time with others? Please write a number next to each statement to indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with that statement. Disagree strongly Disagree a little Neither agree nor disagree Agree a little Agree Strongly 1 2 3 4 5 I see Myself as Someone Who… ____1. Is talkative ____2. Tends to find fault with others ____3. Does a thorough job ____4. Is depressed, blue ____5. Is original, comes up with new ideas ____6. Is reserved ____7. Is helpful and unselfish with others ____8. Can be somewhat careless ____9. Is relaxed, handles stress well ____10. Is curious about many different things ____11. Is full of energy ____12. Starts quarrels with others ____13. Is a reliable worker ____14. Can be tense ____15. Is ingenious, a deep thinker ____16. Generates a lot of enthusiasm ____17. Has a forgiving nature ____18. Tends to be disorganized ____19. Worries a lot ____20. Has an active imagination ____21. Tends to be quiet ____22. Is generally trusting ____23. Tends to be lazy ____24. Is emotionally stable, not easily upset ____25. Is inventive ____26. Has an assertive personality ____27. Can be cold and aloof ____28. Perseveres until the task is finished ____29. Can be moody ____30. Values artistic, aesthetic experiences ____31. Is sometimes shy, inhibited ____32. Is considerate and kind to almost everyone ____33. Does things efficiently ____34. Remains calm in tense situations ____35. Prefers work that is routine ____36. Is outgoing, sociable ____37. Is sometimes rude to others ____38. Makes plans and follows through with them ____39. Gets nervous easily ____40. Likes to reflect, play with ideas ____41. Has few artistic interests ____42. Likes to cooperate with others ____43. Is easily distracted ____44. Is sophisticated in art, music, or literature. BFI Scale Scoring: (“R” denotes reverse-scored items.) Openness – sum your responses to the following 10 questions: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35R, 40, 41R, 44 Conscientiousness – sum your responses to the following 9 questions: 3, 8R, 13, 18R, 23R, 28, 33, 38, 43R Extraversion – sum your responses to the following 8 questions: 1, 6R, 11, 16, 21R, 26, 31R, 36 Agreeableness – sum your responses to the following 9 questions: 2R, 7, 12R, 17, 22, 27R, 32, 37R, 42 Neuroticism – sum your responses to the following 8 questions: 4, 9R, 14, 19, 24R, 29, 34R, 39 Questionnaires that use a Likert scale (eg. strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, strongly agree) for answering questions often contain some items which are to be reverse scored. For example, in a self-esteem questionnaire we may have some positively worded questions (eg. I take a positive attitude toward myself), but also some negatively worded questions (eg. At times, I think I am no good at all). In the above example, we might attribute an answer of strongly disagree with a score of 1, disagree = 2, neutral =3, agree = 4 and strongly disagree =5 for each question. This would be fine for the positively worded questions, as this would give people with high self-esteem a high score, however, we can’t use the same scoring for the negatively worded questions. Instead what we do is reverse score the negatively worded questions. Reverse scoring means that the numerical scoring scale runs in the opposite direction. So, in the above example strongly disagree would attract a score of 5, disagree would be 4, neutral still equals 3, agree becomes 2 and strongly agree = 1. After you have reverse scored the necessary items in your scale, you can then calculate the total score for your questionnaire. BIG FIVE INVENTORY (BFI) Reference John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (Vol. 2, pp. 102–138). New York: Guilford Press. Description of Measure: 44-item inventory that measures an individual on the Big Five Factors (dimensions) of personality (Goldberg, 1993). Each of the factors is then further divided into personality facets. The Big Five Factors are (chart recreated from John & Srivastava, 1999): Big Five Dimensions Facet (and correlated trait adjective) Extraversion vs. introversion Gregariousness (sociable) Assertiveness (forceful) Activity (energetic) Excitement-seeking (adventurous) Positive emotions (enthusiastic) Warmth (outgoing) Agreeableness vs. antagonism Trust (forgiving) Straightforwardness (not demanding) Altruism (warm) Compliance (not stubborn) Modesty (not show-off) Tender-mindedness (sympathetic) Conscientiousness vs. lack of direction Competence (efficient) Order (organized) Dutifulness (not careless) Achievement striving (thorough) Self-discipline (not lazy) Deliberation (not impulsive) Neuroticism vs. emotional stability Anxiety (tense) Angry hostility (irritable) Depression (not contented) Self-consciousness (shy) Impulsiveness (moody) Vulnerability (not self-confident) Openness vs. closedness to experience Ideas (curious) Fantasy (imaginative) Aesthetics (artistic) Actions (wide interests) Feelings (excitable) Values (unconventional) For more information about the Big Five, visit this website: http://www.uoregon.edu/~sanjay/bigfive.html#where Abstracts of Selected Related Articles: Bouchard, T. J. & McGue, M. (2003). Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences. Journal of Neurobiology, 54, 4-45. Psychological researchers typically distinguish five major domains of individual differences in human behavior: cognitive abilities, personality, social attitudes, psychological interests, and psychopathology (Lubinski, 2000). In this article we: discuss a number of methodological errors commonly found in research on human individual differences; introduce a broad framework for interpreting findings from contemporary behavioral genetic studies; briefly outline the basic quantitative methods used in human behavioral genetic research; review the major criticisms of behavior genetic designs, with particular emphasis on the twin and adoption methods; describe the major or dominant theoretical scheme in each domain; and review behavioral genetic findings in all five domains. We conclude that there is now strong evidence that virtually all individual psychological differences, when reliably measured, are moderately to substantially heritable. Tkach, C., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2006). How do people pursue happiness?: Relating personality, happiness-increasing strategies, and well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 183-225. Five hundred ethnically diverse undergraduates reported their happiness strategies – that is, activities undertaken to maintain or increase happiness. Factor analysis extracted eight general strategies: Affiliation, Partying, Mental Control, Goal Pursuit, Passive Leisure, Active Leisure, Religion, and Direct Attempts at happiness. According to multiple regression analyses, these strategies accounted for 52% of the variance in self-reported happiness and 16% over and above the variance accounted for by the Big Five personality traits. The strongest unique predictors of current happiness were Mental Control (inversely related), Direct Attempts, Affiliation, Religion, Partying, and Active Leisure. Gender differences suggest that men prefer to engage in Active Leisure and Mental Control, whereas women favor Affiliation, Goal Pursuit, Passive Leisure, and Religion. Relative to Asian and Chicano(a) students, White students preferred using high arousal strategies. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that many associations between individuals’ personality and happiness levels are to some extent mediated by the strategies they use to increase their happiness – particularly, by Affiliation, Mental Control, and Direct Attempts. Shiota, M.N., Keltner, D., & John, O. P. (2006). Positive emotion dispositions differentially associated with Big Five personality and attachment style. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 61-71. Although theorists have proposed the existence of multiple distinct varieties of positive emotion, dispositional positive affect is typically treated as a unidimensional variable in personality research. We present data elaborating conceptual and empirical differences among seven positive emotion dispositions in their relationships with two core personality constructs, the ‘‘Big Five’’ and adult attachment style. We found that the positive emotion dispositions were differentially associated with self- and peer-rated Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Neuroticism. We also found that different adult attachment styles were associated with different kinds of emotional rewards. Findings support the theoretical utility of differentiating among several dispositional positive emotion constructs in personality research.

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